History of Turks reaches the First Age, where they had settled in middle Asia neighboring Mongols and Chinese. The first known Turkish state is the Hun Empire in the 3rd Century BC. Turks then migrated to Anatolia (a peninsula of Western Asia, also often called by the Latin name of Asia Minor) in the 11th Century. Turks had established numerous states in various geographical regions on the continents of Asia, Europe and Africa.
The most famous state is The Ottoman Empire, governing East Europe, Anatolia, Middle East and North Africa between the 13th and 20th Centuries. The Empire reached the most glorious times with the conquering of Istanbul (Constantinople, the capital city of Byzantine Empire). With the downfall in the 19th Century, the Empire had lost large amount of land, and finally ended after the World War I, resulting with the foundation of new Turkish Republic in the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, one of the most brilliant leaders of men history.
I would like to write a few words about Ataturk (meaning the father of the Turks). Having read a lot about world history and leaders, I have to admit that Ataturk was a distinguished leader in many fields; military, politics, economy, etc. He had built a modern country with the ruins of an Empire, defeated in the World War I, lost all the treasure and many of men power. In 20 years, Republic of Turkey has become an independent modern country, a role model for many developing countries. If you are interested in history, I strongly recommend you to read about Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, and foundation of Republic of Turkey; a magnificent story of victory and success (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ataturk).